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Part II: An Intelligent Face to Evolution: The Invertebrates - Exploring Sensory-motor Routines in Space and Time

Robert W. Campbell


The invertebrate animals explored the Routine level within the universal hierarchy by developing many methods of sensing and actively responding to their environment in patterns of increasing complexity and sophistication. Single celled mobile protozoa and multi-celled sponges jellyfish and worms at the Routine-form level were followed by segmented worms and  millipedes with repetitious routines at the Routine-routine level. Early arthropods such as shrimp developed specialized body segments while mollusks developed in an unsegmented fashion. At the Routine–knowledge level flying insects required a knowledge of events more extended in space and time, while the clever spider spun a web and waited for them to get caught. Ants and bees at the Routine-idea level exploited the idea of division of labor for their collective survival while the giant squid and octopus were predatory loners with large brains and complex behaviors displaying individual intelligence.

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